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Diseases

Scalp and calvarial masses - Pediatric Surgery
     Cushion-like Parietooccipital Masses
     Epidermoid Cyst at the Vertex
     Epidermoid Cyst of the Eyebrow, Epidermoid Cyst of the Inner Eye Angle
     Epidermoid Cyst over the Fontanel
     Epidermoid Cysts of the Head
     Frontoparietal Epidermoid Cyst
     Hairless Area at the Vertex
     Intraosseous Epidermoid Cyst (Operative Finding)
     Intraosseous Epidermoid Cyst (Plain X-ray, CT)
     Isolated Skull Defect
     Mass at the Vertex and Scar
     Masses at the Nasion
     Midline Masses of Different Size
     Occipital Dermoid Cysts
     Parietal Dermoid Cyst
     Periorbital Redness
     Periorbital Swelling
     Reddish Mass with Blood Crust
     Skin Defect at the Vertex
     Skull X-ray and CT (Additional Examinations)
     Subperiostal Hematoma of the Head

Macrocrania - Pediatric Surgery
     Abnormal Data of Head Circumference
     Aqueductal Stenosis
     Case Report Complicated Hydrocephalus (Video)
     Case Report with Long Term Shunt
     Chorioid Plexus
     Chronic Subdural Hematoma
     Clinical Examination (Shunt Dysfunction)
     Clinical Presentation of Hydrocephalus
     Congenital Intracranial Cysts (Supratentorial Cysts)
     Constitutional Macrocrania
     CSF Circulation
     CSF Pressure in Hydrocephalus
     Dandy Walker Cyst (Video)
     Diphanoscopy
     Experimental Hydrocephalus
     Follow-up after Shunting
     Grotesque Macrocrania
     Head Circumference at Birth in Overt Hydrocephalus
     Hydrocephalus caused by Tumor
     Hydrocephalus in Myelomeningocele
     Hydrocephalus in Toxoplasmosis
     Infratentorial Cyst
     Intermediate Macrocrania
     Long-term ICP Recording
     MRI and CT in Hydrocephalus
     Natural History in Hydrocephalus
     One-Way Valve of the CSF Drainage
     Perinatal Hemorrhage
     Prenatal Diagnosis
     Protocol of the Feeling of a Teenager in Hydrocephalus
     Setting Sun Sign (Snapshot)
     Setting Sun Sign over a Certain Time (Video)
     Shunt Dysfunction
     Signs of Shunt-Insufficiency
     Ultrasound in Hydrocephalus
     Values of Head Circumference after Shunting
     Ventriculoperitoneal Shunt

Unconsciousness and subconsciousness in pediatric surgery - Pediatric Surgery
     Addional Examinations (Cerebral Concussion)
     Additional Traumatic Lesions (Cerebral Concussion)
     Anisocoria (Differential Diagnosis as before)
     Calvarial Fractures (Cerebral Concussion)
     Cerebral Concussion
     Cerebral Concussion and Facial Fractures
     Classification (Disturbance of Consciousness)
     Coma Vigile (Survey and Face Picture)
     Depressed Skull Fractures (Cerebral Concussion)
     Epidural Hematoma (Differential Diagnosis Cerebral Concussion or Disturbance of Consciousness)
     Fractures of the Skull Base (Cerebral Concussion)
     GCS 10 (Picture of the Face)
     GCS 13 (Picture of the Face)
     GCS 14 (Picture of the Face)
     GCS 15 (Picture of the Face)
     GCS 5 (Picture of the Face)
     Incidental Injury (Cerebral Concussion)
     Indications for Surveillance (Cerebral Concussion)
     Intoxications (Differential Diagnosis as before)
     Paresis in Atypical Cerebral Concussion
     Pictures of the Face (Atypical Cerebral Concussion)
     Shunt Dysfunction (Differential Diagnosis as before)
     Types of Cerebral Concussion

Striking and abnormal head shape - Pediatric Surgery
     Advancement (Frontal and Coronal Synostosis)
     Bilateral Coronal Synostosis (Clinical Presentation)
     Bilateral Lambdoid Synostosis (Clinical Presentation)
     Bony Holes (Craniosynostosis)
     Complex Skull Deformity (Differential Diagnosis Craniosynostosis)
     Craniofacial Dysostosis (Clinical Presentation)
     Drawing of a Complex Skull Deformity (Differential Diagnosis Craniosynostosis)
     External Skull Shape prior/post Surgery (Vertex Craniectomy)
     Face prior/post Surgery (Transposition Osteotomy)
     Linear Craniectomy (Therapy)
     Local Findings (Craniosynostosis)
     Missing Skull Suture (Craniosynostosis)
     Natural History (Craniosynostosis)
     Operative Findings (Unilateral Coronal Synostosis)
     Plain X-ray/CT/ICP Measurement (Additional Examinations)
     Postural Plagiocephaly (Differential Diagnosis Cranisynostosis)
     Pre-/Postoperative Clinical Presentation, Operative Findings (Frontal Synostosis)
     Right-Occipital and Left-Frontal Plagiocephaly (Video)
     Sagittal Synostosis (Clinical Presentation)
     Striking Skull Shape (Craniosynostosis)
     Suture Signs (Craniosynostosis)
     Synostosis of Multiple Sutures (Clinical Presentation)
     Transposition Osteotomy (Lambdoid Synostosis)
     Trigonocephaly (Video)
     Types (Craniosynostosis)
     Unilateral Coronal Synostosis (Clinical Presentation)
     Vertex Craniectomy (Therapy)
     View from the Top (Frontal Synostosis)

Visible malformations of the face - Pediatric Surgery
     Associated Malformations (Cleft Lip Palate)
     Bilateral Cleft Lip (Palate) (Types)
     Cleft (Lip Alveolus) Palate (Types)
     Cleft Lip Alveolus
     Cleft Nose (Cleft Lip Palate)
     Coordinated Cleft Team (Therapy/Follow-ups Cleft Lip Palate)
     Feeding Plate (Cleft Palate and Lip Palate)
     Feeding Problems (Pierre Robin Sequence)
     Incidence (Cleft Lip Palate)
     Median Facial Cleft (Differential Diagnosis Cleft Lip Palate )
     Oblique Facial Cleft (Differential Diagnosis Cleft Lip Palate)
     Operative Findings (Lip Closure)
     Results of Surgery 1 (Unilateral Cleft Lip)
     Results of Surgery 2 (Bilateral Cleft Lip)
     Retrognathia (Pierre Robin Sequence)
     Right-Left Symmetry (Cleft Lip Palate)
     Signs of Dysplasia (Cleft Lip)
     Therapeutical Options (Syndromic Clefts)
     Thumb Sucker (Cleft Lip Palate)
     Types (Cleft Lip Palate)
     Unilateral Cleft Lip Palate (Types)
     Van der Woude Syndrome (Cleft Lip Palate)

Torticollis - Pediatric Surgery
     Additional Examinations (Congenital Muscular Torticollis)
     Additional Therapy with Plaster (Congenital Muscular Torticollis)
     Age, Severity (Prognosis Congenital Muscular Torticollis)
     Clinical Findings (Positional Plagiocephaly) and Tracings (Facial Asymmetry/Plagiocephaly)
     Clinical Skills (Congenital Muscular Torticollis)
     Congenital Muscular Torticollis (Clinical Presentation)
     Crossed Plagiocephaly (Differential Diagnosis Congenital Muscular Torticollis)
     Differential Diagnosis (Congenital Muscular Torticollis)
     Drawing (Congenital Muscular Torticollis)
     Gastroesophageal Reflux (Differential Diagnosis Congenital Muscular Torticollis)
     Indications (Therapy Congenital Muscular Torticollis)
     Infant (Congenital Muscular Torticollis)
     Natural History (Congenital Muscular Torticollis)
     Newborn (Sternocleidomastoid Tumor)
     Non-Operative Therapy (Congenital Muscular Torticollis)
     Operative Findings (Surgery in Congenital Muscular Torticollis)
     Postural Torticollis (Differential Diagnosis Congenital Muscular Torticollis)
     Prognosis (Congenital Muscular Torticollis)
     Pterygium Colli (Differential Diagnosis Congenital Muscular Torticollis)
     Secondary Sequels (Congenital Muscular Torticollis)
     Sequel to the Eyes (Congenital Muscular Torticollis)
     Severe Form (Congenital Muscular Torticollis)
     Shoulder Elevation (Differential Diagnosis Congenital Muscular Torticollis)
     Sternocleidomastoid Tumor (Clinical Findings)
     Toddler (Congenital Muscular Torticollis)
     Unilateral Coronal Synostosis (Differential Diagnosis Congenital Muscular Torticollis)

Tumors, cysts and sinuses of the neck - Pediatric Surgery
     Acute Lymphadenitis of the Neck (Video)
     Carcinoma of the Thyroid Gland (Differential Diagnosis Thyroglossal Duct Cyst)
     Congenital and Acquired Pathologies (Differential Diagnosis)
     Cystic Lymphangioma (Differential Diagnosis Second Branchial Cyst)
     Drippling Opening (Lateral Fistula of the Neck)
     Ectopic Thymus Gland (Differential Diagnosis Second Branchial Cyst)
     Epidermoid Cyst (Differential Diagnosis Thyroglossal Duct Cyst)
     Indications for Surgery (Therapy Cysts and Fistula of the Neck)
     Infectious Mass (Clinical Significance of Thyroglossus Duct Cyst)
     Lateral Cyst of the Neck (Clinical Findings)
     Lateral Fistula of the Neck (Clinical Findings)
     Lateral Mass (Branchial Cyst)
     Lymphadenitis (Differential Diagnosis Second Branchial Cyst)
     midline cervical cleft (Differential Diagnosis Lateral Fistula)
     Midline Mass (Thyreoglossal Duct Cyst)
     Minute Opening (Lateral Fistula of the Neck)
     Mixed Pleomorphic Adenoma (Differential Diagnosis Second Branchial Cyst)
     Natural History/Differential Diagnosis (Congenital Cysts and Sinuses)
     Neck Tags (Differential Diagnosis Second Branchial Anomaly)
     Node of the Thyroid Gland (Differential Diagnosis Thyroglossal Duct Cyst)
     Nodose Goitre (Differential Diagnosis Thyroglossal Duct Cyst)
     Operative Findings (Second Branchial Anomalies)
     Operative Findings (Thyroglossal Duct Cyst)
     Preparation (Thyroglossal Duct Cyst)
     Reddish Midline Mass (Thyreoglossal Duct Cyst)
     Scar (Lateral Fistula of the Neck)
     Scintiscan of the Thyroid Gland
     Surgical Technique (Therapy Cyst and Fistula of the Neck)
     Thyroglossal Duct Cyst (Clinical Findings)
     Thyroglossal Duct Cyst (Video)

Mediastinal tumors - Pediatric Surgery
     Additional Radiological Examinations (CT/MRI)
     Benign Types (Neurogenic Mediastinal Tumors)
     Bronchogenic Cyst (Differential Diagnosis as before)
     Clinical Significance (Neurogenic Mediastinal Tumors)
     Conventional X-ray Examinations
     Dv and Lateral Chest X-ray (Mediastinal Mass)
     Enteric Duplication Cyst (Differential Diagnosis Tumor Posterior Mediastinum)
     Horner´s Syndrome (Neurogenic Mediastinal Tumor/Ganglioneuroma)
     Lymphangioma (Differential Diagnosis as before)
     Lymphoma (Differential Diagnosis Tumor Middle Mediastinum)
     Malignant Types (Neurogenic Mediastinal Tumors)
     Neurinoma (Differential diagnosis tumor posterior mediastinum)
     Other Types (Neurogenic Thoracic Tumors)
     Preparation Teratoma (Differential Diagnosis as before)
     Semimalignant Types (Neurogenic Mediastinal Tumors)
     Subdivision of the Mediastinum (Differential Diagnosis Mediastinal Tumor)
     Teratoma: Operative Findings, Preparation (Tumor Anterior Mediastinum)
     Teratoma: X-ray, Operative Findings, Preparation (Tumor Anterior Mediastinum)
     Therapy (Neurogenic and Other Mediastinal Tumors)
     Thymus Hyperplasia (Differential Diagnosis as before)
     Thymus Tumors (Differential Diagnosis as before)
     Types No.1 (Neurogenic Mediastinal Tumors)
     Urine Analysis (Cathecholamines)
     X-ray in Teratoma (Differential Diagnosis Tumors Anterior Mediastinum)

Respiratory distress syndrome in the newborn and respiratory signs and symptoms in older children - Pediatric Surgery
     Bullous Pneumopathy (Pathophysiology/Differential Diagnosis RDS)
     Chest Radiograph (Congenital Diaphragmatic Hernia)
     Choanal Atresia (Differential Diagnosis RDS)
     Clinical Presentation (Congenital Diaphragmatic Hernia)
     Congenital Diaphragmatic Eventration (Differential Diagnosis Repiratory Distress Syndrome)
     Esophageal Atresia (Differential Diagnosis RDS)
     Gastroesophageal Reflux (Differential Diagnosis RDS)
     Hernia Sac (Congenital Diaphragmatic Hernia)
     Incidental Finding (Additional Examinations)
     Lateral Chest X-ray (Additional Examinations Diaphragmatic Hernia)
     Lobar Emphysema 1 (Differential Diagnosis RDS)
     Lobar Emphysema 2 (Differential Diagnosis RDS)
     Lobar Emphysema 3 (Differential Diagnosis RDS)
     Lung Cyst (Differential Diagnosis Diaphragmatic Hernia/RDS)
     Lymphangioma (Differential Diagnosis RDS)
     Mediastinal Tumor (Differential Diagnosis RDS)
     Opacity Chest X-ray (Additional Examinations)
     Operative Closure (Congenital Diaphragmatic Hernia)
     Operative Findings (Bilateral Morgagni Hernia)
     Paralysis of the Phrenic Nerve (Differential Diagnosis Respiratory Distress Syndrome)
     Pathophysiology/Differential Diagnosis (Congenital Diaphragmatic Hernia/Respiratory Distress Syndrome=RDS)
     Pierre Robin Sequence (Differential Diagnosis RDS)
     Pneumoperitoneum (Additional Examinations)
     Pneumothorax (Differential Diagnosis Respiratory Distress Syndrome)
     Postoperative Chest X-ray 1 (Additional Examinations)
     Postoperative Chest X-ray 2 (Additional Examinations)
     RDS, Clinical History and Chest X-ray (Video)
     Respiratory Distress Syndrome (Congenital Diaphragmatic Hernia)
     Respiratory Distress Syndrome of the Newborne and Dyspnea in a Schoolchild (Video)
     Sternocostal (Morgagni) Hernia (Congenital Diaphragmatic Hernia)
     Triangular Defect (Congenital Diaphragmatic Hernia)
     Types (Congenital Diaphragmatic Hernia)
     Upper Gastrointestinal Contrast Study 1 ( Additional Examinations)
     Upper Gastrointestinal Contrast Study 2 (Additional Examinations)
     Valve Mechanism (Differential Diagnosis RDS)
     Very Large Defect (Congenital Diaphragmatic Hernia)

Congenital chest wall deformities - Pediatric Surgery
     Additional Pathologies (Funnel Chest)
     Asymmetric Form (Pigeon Brest)
     Asymmetrical, Narrow and Deep Funnel Chest 1 (Types)
     Asymmetrical, Narrow and Deep Funnel Chest 2 (Types)
     Asymmetry Mammary Glands (Funnel Chest)
     Clinical Presentation (Funnel Chest)
     Clinical Presentation (Pigeon Brest)
     Clinical Significance/Associated Anomalies ( Marfan Syndrome)
     Clinical Significance/Presentation (Lateral Chest X-ray)
     Combination Type (Pectus Excavatum/Carinatum)
     Combined Type (Pigeon/Funnel Chest)
     History (Funnel Chest)
     Hypoplasia Pectoralis Muscle (Funnel Chest)
     Indications for Surgery (Funnel Chest)
     Lateral Chest X-ray (Clinical Skills/Additional Examinations)
     Local and General Findings (Funnel Chest)
     Local Findings (Funnel Chest)
     Mammary Glands (Funnel Chest)
     Minimal Invasive Procedure (Funnel Chest)
     Open Funnel Chest Operation (Video)
     Open Surgery (Funnel Chest)
     Pathology (Funnel Chest)
     Pectus Carinatum (Differential Diagnosis Funnel Chest)
     Poland Syndrome (Funnel Chest)
     Postoperative Findings (Funnel Chest)
     Pre-/Postoperative Findings (Funnel Chest)
     Pre-/Postoperatively (Additonal Examinations)
     Symmetrical, Broad and Mould-like Funnel Chest (Types)
     Symmetrical, Narrow and Deep Funnel Chest (Types)
     Thoracic Sagittal Diameter (Clinical Skills/Additional Examinations Funnel Chest)
     Types (Funnel Chest)

Tumors, tumor-like masses and anomalies of the thoracic wall - Pediatric Surgery
     Axillary Swelling 1 (Differential Diagnosis Mastitis)
     Axillary Swelling 2 (Differential Diagnosis Mastitis)
     Bilateral Breast Enlargement (Differential Diagnosis Non-Inflammatory Breast Enlargement)
     Breast Asymmetry 1 (Differential Diagnosis Diffuse/Localized Breast Enlargement)
     Breast Asymmetry 2 (Differential Diagnosis Congenital/Developmental/Acquired Pathology)
     Breast Enlargement (Differential Diagnosis as before)
     Brown Discoloration Chest Wall (Differential Diagnosis Anomaly/Mass Chest Wall)
     Enlargement Breast Region (Differential Diagnosis as before)
     Inflammatory Enlargement of the Breast
     Inframammary Round Focus (Differential Diagnosis Chest Wall Tumor)
     Inframammary Skin Tumor (Differential Diagnosis Chest Wall Tumor)
     Local and General Findings 2 (Non-Inflammatory Breast Enlargement)
     Local and General Findings 4 (Non-Inflammatory Breast Enlargement)
     Local Findings (Mastitis)
     Local Findings 1 (Non-Inflammatory Breast Enlargement)
     Local Findings 3 (Non-Inflammatory Breast Enlargement)
     Local Findings 5 (Non-Inflammatory Breast Enlargement)
     Local Findings 6 (Non-Inflammatory Breast Enlargement)
     Local Findings 7 (Non-Inflammatory Breast Enlargement)
     Local Rib Swelling (Differential Diagnosis Chest Wall Tumor)
     Mass Chest Wall (Differential Diagnosis as before)
     Mass Chest Wall (Differential Diagnosis Mastitis)
     Multilocular Mass (Differential Diagnosis as before)
     Naevus (Non-Inflammatory Breast Enlargement)
     Newborn/Schoolchild (Mastitis)
     Non-Inflammmatory Enlargement of the Breast
     Painful Mass Chest Wall (Differential Diagnosis Chest Wall Tumor)
     Redness Chest Wall (Differential Diagnosis Mastitis)
     Rib Mass (Differential Diagnosis Chest Wall Tumor)
     Striking Areola (Differential Diagnosis as before)
     Unilateral Breast Enlargement (Differential Diagnosis as before)
     White Spot of the Chest Wall

Masses, fistulas and cutaneous anomalies of the back - Pediatric Surgery
     Automatic Step (Myelomeningocele)
     Clubfoot (Clinical Presentation as before)
     Constipation (Clinical Presentation as before)
     Cystic Lumbar Mass (Differential Diagnosis as before)
     Defect of the Back (Differential Diagnosis as before)
     Differential Diagnosis (Minimal Spinal Dysraphism)
     Large Mass at the Buttocks (Differential Diagnosis Mass of the Back )
     Limp Bag-like Structure (Differential Diagnosis as before)
     Low Type of Myelomeningocele/Neurology (Video)
     Minimal Spinal Dysraphism (Occult Spina Bifida)
     MRI (Mass of the Back/Minimal Spinal Dysraphism)
     Mucous Membrane-like Region of Back (Clinical Presentation as before)
     Myelography (Mass of the Back/Minimal Spinal Dysraphism)
     Natural History (Myelomeningocele)
     Opening over the Coccyx (Differential Diagnosis Mass/Fistula of the Back)
     Paralysis, Foot Deformities (Myelomeningocele)
     Plain X-ray of the Spine, CT (Mass of the Back/ Minimal Spinal Dysraphism)
     Prenatal Measures (CNS Anomalies/Masses of the Back/Minimal Spinal Dysraphism)
     Prenatal Ultrasound (Mass of the Back)
     Prolapse (Myelomeningocele)
     Sacral Globular Eminence (Differential Diagnosis Mass of the Back)
     Skin Defect with Different Structures (Differential Diagnosis as before)
     Smooth Sacral Mass (Differential Diagnosis as before)
     Solid Sacral Mass (Clinical Presentation as before)
     Survey Clinical Presentation (Minimal Spinal Dysraphism)
     Tail-like Cutaneous Appendage (Clinical Presentation Minimal Spinal Dysraphism)
     Therapy 1 (Minimal Spinal Dysraphism)
     Therapy 2 (Minimal Spinal Dysraphism)
     Therapy 3 (Minimal Spinal Dysraphism)
     Therapy 4 (Minimal Spinal Dysraphism)
     Therapy 5 (Minimal Spinal Dysraphism)
     Types (Minimal Spinal Dysraphism)

Tumefactions of the groin and umbilicus - Pediatric Surgery
     Clinical Presentation (Inguinal Hernia), Clinical Presentation (Umbilical Hernia)
     Clinical Signs and Symptoms (Inguinal Hernia)
     Cutis Navel/Navel Granuloma (Differential Diagnosis as before)
     Differential Diagnosis (Inguinal Hernia)
     Differential Diagnosis (Umbilical Hernia)
     Elongated and Oval Groin Swelling (Differential Diagnosis Inguinal Hernia)
     Eminence Navel Base (Differential Diagnosis as before)
     Epigastric Swelling (Differential Diagnosis Umbilical Hernia)
     Groin Swelling (s) in Girls (Differential Diagnosis Gonads)
     Infraumbilical Midline Mass (Differential Diagnosis as before)
     Inguinal Hernia in Infancy and Toddler (Video)
     Local Finding (Incarcerated Inguinal Hernia)
     Local Findings (Inguinal Hernia in Girls)
     Local Findings prior to and after Surgery (Umbilical Hernia)
     Moist Navel (Differential Diagnosis as before)
     Navel Appendage (Differential Diagnosis as before)
     Node of the Groin (Differential Diagnosis as before)
     Occurence 0-21 Years (Inguinal Hernia)
     Occurence Adulthood (Inguinal Hernia)
     Occurence Infants (Inguinal Hernia)
     Painful Swelling (Differential Diagnosis as before)
     Premature Child (Bilateral Inguinal Hernia)
     Recurrence (Inguinal Hernia)
     Reduction Inguinal Hernia (Video)
     Schematic Drawings, Types (Inguinal Hernia)
     Scrotal and Groin swelling (Differential Diagnosis as before)
     Scrotal Swelling (Differential Diagnosis as before)
     Surgical Technique (Inguinal Hernia)
     Swelling below the Groin (Differential Diagnosis as before)
     Therapeutical Proceedings (Inguinal Hernia)
     Time of Surgery (Inguinal/Umbilical Hernia)
     Types/Clinical Presentation 1 (Inguinal Hernia)
     Types/Clinical Presentation 2 (Inguinal Hernia)
     Types/Clinical Presentation 3 (Inguinal Hernia)
     Types/Clinical Presentation 4 (Inguinal Hernia)
     Types/Clinical Presentation 5 (Inguinal Hernia)
     Umbilical Cord Swelling (Differential Diagnosis as before)

recognizable abdominal malformations - Pediatric Surgery
     Acquired Evisceration 1 (Differential Diagnosis)
     Acquired Evisceration 2 (Differential Diagnosis)
     Additional Examinations (Gastroschisis and Omphalocele)
     Bladder Exstrophy 1 (Differential Diagnosis as before)
     Bladder Exstrophy 2 (Differential Diagnosis)
     Bladder Exstrophy in Girls (Differential Diagnosis)
     Clinical Presentation (Gastroschisis)
     Clinical Presentation (Omphalocele)
     Complex Malformation (Differential Diagnosis)
     Differential Diagnosis (Gastroschisis/Omphalocele)
     Disproportion (Gastroschisis)
     Extreme Form (Omphalocele)
     Heart Ectopy (Differential Diagnosis)
     Intestinal Changes (Gastroschisis)
     Intestinal Malrotation (Gastroschisis and Omphalocele)
     Intestinal Perforation (Gastroschisis)
     Large Form (Omphalocele)
     Medium-sized Form (Omphalocele)
     Minimal Form (Omphalocele)
     Natural History (Omphalocele)
     Small Form (Omphalocele)
     Small-for-Date Newborn (Gastroschisis)
     Therapy (Gastroschisis and Omphalocele)
     Therapy (Gastroschisis)
     Therapy 1 (Omphalocele)
     Therapy 2 (Omphalocele)
     Variant of Bladder Exstrophy 1 (Differential Diagnosis)
     Variant of Bladder Exstrophy 2 (Differential Diagnosis)
     X-ray of the Pelvis (Differential Diagnosis)

Vomiting, regurgitation and dysphagia - Pediatric Surgery
     Choking, Regurgitation (Differential Diagnosis)
     Chronic Form (Hypertrophic Pyloric Stenosis)
     Clinical Skills (Hypertrophic Pyloric Stenosis)
     Combined Malformations (Hypertrophic Pyloric Stenosis)
     Differential Diagnosis (Hypertrophic Pyloric Stenosis)
     Drawing of the Stomach ( Hypertrophic Pyloric Stenosis)
     Dysphagia, Regurgitation 1 (Differential Diagnosis)
     Dysphagia, Regurgitation 2 (Differential Diagnosis)
     Early Results (Hypertrophic Pyloric Stenosis)
     Esophagogastrography (Hypertrophic Pyloric Stenosis)
     Esophagogastrography in Vomiting (Differential Diagnosis)
     Fits of Coughing on Feeding (Differential Diagnosis)
     Foreign Body Ingestion (Differential Diagnosis)
     Functional Causes (Vomiting)
     Inguinal Hernia (Differential Diagnosis)
     Late Results (Hypertrophic Pyloric Stenosis)
     Operative Findings (Hypertrophic Pyloric Stenosis)
     Pathophysiology (Hypertrophic Pyloric Stenosis)
     Possetting (Video)
     Potassium, Chloride and Bicarbonate Values
     Projectile Vomiting (Hypertrophic Pyloric Stenosis)
     Sticking of Food (Differential Diagnosis)
     Stool in Starvation (Hypertrophic Pyloric Stenosis)
     Striking External Genitals (Differential Diagnosis)
     Therapy (Hypertrophic Pyloric Stenosis)
     Ultrasoud (Hypertrophic Pyloric Stenosis)
     Value of Clinical Signs (Hypertrophic Pyloric Stenosis)

Chronic constipation - Pediatric Surgery
     Anterior Perineal Anus (Differential Diagnosis)
     Characteristics of Constipation (Hirschsprung´s Disease)
     Classic Type (Hirschsprung´s Disease)
     Clinical Presentation (Hirschsprung´s Disease)
     Clinical Presentations (Hirschsprung´s Disease)
     Contrast enema (Hirschsprung´s disease)
     Delayed Maturation of Ganglion Cells (Differential Diagnosis)
     Diagnostic Marathon (Hirschsprun0g´s Disease)
     Differential Diagnosis (Hirschsprung´s Disease)
     Disorders of Intestinal Innervation
     Etiopathology 1 (Hirschsprung´s Disease)
     Etiopathology 2 (Hirschsprung´s Disease)
     Grotesque Megacolon (Hirschsprung´s Disease)
     Hirschsprung´s Disease (Video)
     Idiopathic Constipation (Differential Diagnosis as before)
     Ileus (Hirschsprung´s Disease)
     Ileus of the Newborn (Hirschsprung´s Disease)
     Long-Distance Type (Hirschsprung´s Disease)
     Manometry (Hirschsprung´s Disease)
     Meconium Plug Syndrome (Differential Diagnosis)
     Neonatal Period (Hirschsprung´s Disease)
     Operative Findings (Hirschsprung´s Disease)
     Perforation of Intestine (Hirschsprung´s Disease)
     Pull-through Operation First Step (Hirschsprung´s Disease)
     Pull-through Operation Fourth Step (Hirschsprung´s Disease)
     Pull-through Operation Second Step (Hirschsprung´s Disease)
     Pull-through Operation Third Step (Hirschsprung´s Disease)
     Small Left Colon Syndrome (Differential Diagnosis)

Hematemesis, vomiting - Pediatric Surgery
     Chest X-ray (Reflux)
     Clinical Presentation (Gastroesophageal Reflux =Reflux, Hiatus Hernia)
     Clinical Signs (Gastroesophageal Reflux)
     Complications of Reflux Surgery (Reflux)
     Differential Diagnosis (Gastroesophageal Reflux, Hematemesis)
     Esophagitis (Reflux)
     Esophagogastrography 1 (Reflux)
     Esophagogastrography 2 (Reflux)
     Esophagogastrography 3 (Reflux)
     Etiology (Reflux)
     Indications for Treatment (Gastroesophageal Reflux)
     Leading Symtpom Hematemesis (Reflux)
     Manometry Esophagus (Reflux)
     Methods of Therapy (Reflux)
     Peptic Stenosis (Reflux)
     pH-metry 1 (Gastroesophageal Reflux)
     pH-metry 2 (Reflux)
     Radiology (Reflux)
     Surgery 1 (Reflux)
     Surgery 2 (Reflux)
     Type 4-5 (Reflux, Hiatus Hernia)
     Type 5 (Reflux, Hiatus Hernia)
     Types 4-6 (Reflux, Hiatus Hernia)
     Types/Grades (Gastroesophageal Reflux =Reflux, Hiatus Hernia)

Blood in the stool, lower gastro-intestinal bleeding - Pediatric Surgery
     Abdomen X-ray 1 (Intussusception)
     Abdomen X-ray 2 (Intussusception)
     Bleeding Intestinal Ulcer (Intussusception)
     Causes (Intussusception)
     Clinical Presentation (Intussusception)
     Contrast Enema (Intussusception)
     Differential Diagnosis (Intussusception)
     Differential Diagnosis Melaena (Intussuception)
     Duplication (Differential Diagnosis as before)
     Haemorrhoids (Differential Diagnosis as before)
     Henoch-Schönlein Purpura (Differential Diagnosis as before)
     Incidence (Intussusception)
     Intestinal Polyp (Differential Diagnosis as before)
     Intestinal Polyp and Invagination/Lymphoma Intestinal Wall and Invagination (Symptomatic Intussusception)
     Meckel´s Diverticulum (Intussusception)
     Melena (Intussusception)
     Methods of Treatment, Indications (Intussusception)
     Natural History 1 (Intussusception)
     Natural History 2 (Intussusception)
     Operative Findings (Intussusception)
     Operative Treatment (Intussusception)
     Pathophysiology 1 (Intussusception)
     Pathophysiology 2 (Intussusception)
     Red Current Jelly Stool (Intussusception)
     Results of Surgery (Intussusception)
     Shapes of Contrast Stop (Intussusception)
     Types 1 (Intussusception)
     Types 2 (Intussusception)
     Ultrasound (Intussusception)
     Volvulus (Differential Diagnosis as before)

Abdominal emergencies, 'surgical abdomen' - Pediatric Surgery
     Abdominal Tumor (Differential Diagnosis as before)
     Acute Appendicitis (Operative Findings)
     Age at Postoperative Obstruction (Complications)
     Appendage Small Intestine (Differential Diagnosis as before)
     Chocolate-coloured Mass (Differential Diagnosis as before)
     Clinical Skills 1 (Appendicitis)
     Clinical Skills 2 (Appendicitis)
     Congenital Adhesions (Differential Diagnosis ´Surgical Abdomen´)
     Contusion Abdominal Wall (Differential Diagnosis as before)
     Diagnostic Catchwords (Appendicitis)
     Diagnostic Pitfalls (Appendicitis)
     Differential Diagnosis 1 (Appendicitis)
     Differential Diagnosis 2 (Appendicitis)
     Female Internal Genitals (Differential Diagnosis as before)
     Ileus of the Newborn (Video)
     Incidence/Types (Appendicitis)
     Interval in Postoperative Obstruction (Complications)
     Intestinal Strangulation (Differential Diagnosis as before)
     Laparoscopic Surgery (Appendicitis)
     Mass Lower Abdomen (Differential Diagnosis Appendicitis/´Surgical Abdomen´/ Abdominal Tumor)
     Mass of Moderate Size (Differential Diagnosis as before)
     Pelvic Appendicitis (Complications)
     Postoperative Obstruction (Complications)
     Purulent Discharge (Complications)
     Redness Scrotum (Differential Diagnosis as before)
     Stage of Disease 1 (Appendicitis)
     Stage of Disease 2 (Appendicitis)
     Stage of Disease 3 (Appendicitis)
     Stage of Disease 4 (Appendicitis)
     Stage of Disease 5 (Appendicitis)
     Unexplained Fever/Lower Abdominal Pain (Complications)
     X-ray in Postoperative Obstruction (Complications)

Abdominal tumor - Pediatric Surgery
     Angiography 1 (Nephroblastoma)
     Angiography 2 (Nephroblastoma)
     Bilateral Abdominal Tumor (Nephroblastoma)
     Cavography (Nephroblastoma)
     Congenital Paraparesis (Neuroblastoma)
     CT (Nephroblastoma)
     Cystic Abdominal Mass (Mesenteric Cyst)
     Differential Diagnosis 1 (Nephroblastoma)
     Differential Diagnosis 2 (Nephroblastoma)
     Epigastric Mass (Neuroblastoma)
     Excised Wilms´ Tumors
     Extraabdominal Manifestations (Neuroblastoma)
     Hemihypertrophy (Nephroblastoma)
     Hepatomegaly (Neuroblastoma)
     Large Belly (Nephroblastoma)
     Nephroblastoma
     Operative Findings/Preparation (Teratoma)
     Seeming Retroperitoneal tumor (Simple Renal Cyst)
     Staging in Nephroblastoma
     Staging/Forms 2 (Nephroblastoma)
     Staging/Forms 3 (Nephroblastoma)
     Staging/Forms 4 (Nephroblastoma)
     Staging/Forms 5 (Nephroblastoma)
     Staging/Forms 6 (Nephroblastoma)
     Staging/Forms 7 (Nephroblastoma)
     Staging/Forms 8 (Nephroblastoma)
     Staging/Pathoanatomical Forms 1 (Nephroblastoma)
     Subileus/Abdominal Mass (Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma)
     Surgery (Nephroblastoma)
     Surgery 1 (Neuroblastoma)
     Surgery 2 (Neuroblastoma)
     Urinanalysis (Neuroblastoma)
     Visible/Palpable Tumor Lower Abdomen (Ovarian Tumor )
     Work-ups/ Operative findings 1 (Teratoma)
     Work-ups/Operative Findings 2 (Teratoma)
     X-ray in Retroperitoneal Tumor (Neuroblastoma)

Acute scrotum, acute swelling or pain of the scrotum and/or testis - Pediatric Surgery
     Abnormal Site (Torsion of the Testis)
     Blue Spot (Torsion of Appendages)
     Crossing Scrotal Edema 1 (Cellulitis)
     Crossing Scrotal Edema 2 (Idiopathic Scrotal Edema)
     Cystic Scrotal Mass (Spermatocele)
     Different Testicular Size (Leukemia)
     Etiopathogenesis (Torsion of the Testis)
     Infant with Scrotal Swelling (Incarcerated Inguinoscrotal Hernia)
     Irregular Scrotal Swelling (Varicocele)
     Irreversibly Twisted Spermatic Cord (Torsion of the Testis)
     Localized Scrotal Mass (Benign Testicular Tumor)
     Newborn with Scrotal Swelling 1 (Torsion of the Testis)
     Newborn with Scrotal Swelling 2 (Torsion of the Testis)
     Pale Scrotal Swelling (Nephrosis/Nephrotic Syndrome)
     Recurrence of Testicular Torsion
     Scrotal Necrosis (Scrotal Infection)
     Scrotal Swelling (Torsion of the Testis)
     Scrotal Trauma
     Skin Retraction (Torsion of the Testis)
     Smooth Scrotal Mass (Lipoma)
     Solid Scrotal Mass 1 (Ectopic Spleen)
     Solid Scrotal Mass 2 (Malignant Testicular Tumor)
     Stages of Disease (Torsion of the Testis)
     Surgery (Torsion of the Testis)
     Swelling of Scrotum and Penis (Henoch-Schönlein Purpura)
     Swelling of the Scotum/Testis
     Swelling Testis/Scrotum (Torsion of the Testis)
     Swollen Epididymis (Epididymitis)
     Testicular Appendages (Torsion of Appendages)
     Types (Torsion of the Testis)
     Unilateral Redness of Scrotum (Epididymitis/Work-up Examinations)

Cryptorchidism, empty scrotum - Pediatric Surgery
     Cell Death of Spermatogones (Cryptorchidism)
     Clinical Skills 1 (Cryptorchidism)
     Clinical Skills 2 (Cryptorchidism)
     Combined Anomalies 1 (Cryptorchidism)
     Combined Anomalies 2 (Cryptorchidism)
     Combined Anomalies 3 (Cryptorchidism)
     Differential Diagnosis (Cryptorchidism)
     Indications for Surgery (Cryptorchidism)
     Mass beyond the Scrotum (Cryptorchidism)
     Missing Testis 1 (Laparoscopy)
     Missing Testis 2 (Laparoscopy) / Visible Testis (Laparoscopy)
     Non-palpable Testis (Laparoscopy)
     Non-visible Right Testis (Cryptorchidism)
     Non-visible Testis (Cryptorchidism)
     Orchidopexy (Cryptorchidism)
     Technique of Clinical Examination (Video)
     Testis at the External Inguinal Ring (Cryptorchidism)
     Torsion of the Testis (Cryptorchidism)
     Types (Cryptorchidism)
     Work-up Examinations, Ultrasound (Cryptorchidism)

Hematuria Renal injuries - Pediatric Surgery
     Abdominal and Pelvic Trauma
     Age Distribution of Renal Stones
     American Classification/Indications to Surgery (Renal Trauma)
     Bladder Evaginations (Differential Diagnosis Hematuria)
     Bladder Stone 1
     Bladder Stone 2
     Blood-stained Urine
     Differential Diagnosis Hematuria
     Excrescences of Bladder Mucosa
     Flank Mass and Preparations
     Grades/Change of Therapeutical Indications (Renal Trauma)
     Incidence (Renal Trauma)
     Mass in the Bladder 1 (Differential Diagnosis as before)
     Mass in the Bladder 2
     Mass in the Renal Pelvis
     Plain Abdominal X-ray (Renal Trauma)
     Postoperative Urine Collection
     Prognosis 1 (Renal Trauma)
     Prognosis 2 (Renal Trauma)
     Recurrent Hematuria
     Renal Calculus 1
     Renal Calculus 2
     Renal Calculus 3
     Renal Calculus 4
     Renal Calculus 5
     Renal Calculus 6
     Renal Injury
     Suppurated Kidney
     Suprapubic Mass
     Types 1 (Renal Trauma)
     Types 2 (Renal Trauma)
     Types 3 (Renal Trauma)
     Types 4 (Renal Trauma)
     Types 5 (Renal Trauma)
     Types 6 (Renal Trauma)
     Types 7 (Renal Trauma)
     Types 8 (Renal Trauma)
     Ultrasound, CT (Renal Trauma)
     Vesicles of the Bladder Wall 1
     Vesicles of the Bladder Wall 2

Vaginal bleeding and intralabial masses - Pediatric Surgery
     Adhesion of the Labia (Discharge, Genital Bleeding)
     Angiofibroma (Interlabial Mass)
     Closure of the Hymen 1 (Interlabial Mass)
     Closure of the Hymen 2 (Trauma to the External Genitals)
     Colposcopic Finding (Genital Bleeding)
     Foreign Bodies of the Vagina (Discharge, Genital Bleeding)
     Hymenal Processi (Interlabial Mass)
     Hypomenorrhea (Genital Bleeding)
     Interlabial Mass (Severe Urethral Prolapse)
     Interlabial Mass / Genital Bleeding (Differential Diagnosis)
     Irregular Tumor (Interlabial Mass)
     Mass at the Introitus (Interlabial Mass)
     Papilloma (Interlabial Mass)
     Perianal Warts (Loss of Blood from the Anus/Vagina)
     Prolapse (Interlabial Mass)
     Prominence at the Introitus (Interlabial Mass)
     Surgical Abdomen and Primary Amenorrhea
     Swelling at the Urethral Orifice (Slight Urethral Prolapse) / Genital Bleeding
     Swelling at the Urethral Orifice (Slight Urethral Prolapse) / Genital Bleeding
     Trauma to the External Genitals 1 (Genital Bleeding)
     Trauma to the External Genitals 2 (Genital Bleeding)
     Trauma to the External Genitals 3 (Genital Bleeding)
     Voiding Disorder (Discharge, Genital Bleeding)

Urinary infections in pediatric surgery and urology- Pediatric Surgery
     Additional Radiological Imgaging (UTI/VUR)
     Balloon-like Renal Pelvis 1 (Differential Diagnosis as before)
     Balloon-like Renal Pelvis 2 (UTI/VUR)
     Balloon-like Renal Pelvis 3 (UTI/VUR)
     Balloon-like Renal Pelvis 4 (UTI/VUR)
     Causes Number 1 (VUR)
     Causes Number 2 (Reflux)
     Clinical Presentation (Incomplete Ureteral Duplication pre/post Surgery)
     Clinical Presentation (VUR)
     Cohen Procedure (Reflux Therapy)
     Complete Ureteral Duplication 1 (UTI/VUR)
     Complete Ureteral Duplication 2 (UTI/VURI)
     Complete Ureteral Duplication 3 (Differential Diagnosis UTI/Voiding Disorder)
     Complete Ureteral Duplication 4 (Differential Diagnosis as before)
     Cystic Renal Anomalies (Differential Diagnosis UTI/Abdominal Tumor)
     Differential Diagnosis (Urinary Tract Infection/VUR)
     Dilated Ureter 1 (UTI/VUR)
     Dilated Ureter 2 (UTI/VUR)
     Dilated Ureter 3 (UTI/VUR)
     Endoscopy (UTI/VUR)
     Evagination of the Bladder (UTI)
     Eventration of the Bladder (Differential Diagnosis UTI)
     Forms of Papilla (VUR)
     Graduation (VUR)
     Incidence (Ureteral Duplications)
     Incomplete Ureteral Duplication (UTI/VUR)
     Indications for Surgery (Therapy of Reflux)
     Intrarenal Reflux (UrinaryTract Infection/VUR)
     IVU (Urinary Tract Infection/VUR)
     Obstructions of Upper Urinary Tract (Differential Diagnosis UTI/VUR)
     Obstructive Megaureter, IVU (Video)
     Operative Findings (Therapy of Reflux)
     Phimosis (Differential Diagnosis UTI/Voiding Disorder)
     Prenatal Manifestation (VUR), Videosequence.
     Redness of the Prepuce (UTI)
     Reflux Nephropathy (Urinary Tract Infection/VUR)
     Renal Ectopy (Differential Diagnosis UTI/Scrotal Swelling)
     Types 1 (VUR)
     Types 2 (VUR)
     Ureteral Duplications (UTI/VUR)
     VCUG (UTI/VUR)
     Visualization of Bladder Reflux

Voiding dysfunctions - Pediatric Surgery
     Bag-like Ureteral End (Differential Diagnosis as before)
     Belly with Skin Folds (Voiding Disorder/Posterior Urethral Valves)
     Bladder in Myelomeningocele (Differential Diagnosis Voiding Disorder)
     Clinical Presentation (Posterior Urethral Valves)
     Clinical Significance (Posterior Urethral Valves)
     Cystourethroscopy (Posterior Urethral Valves)
     Differential Diagnosis (Voiding Disorder, Posterior Urethral Valves)
     Disorder of Bladder Function 1 (Voiding Disorder)
     Disorders of Bladder Function 2 (Voiding Disorder)
     Disorders of Bladder Function 3 (Voiding Disorder)
     Distal Urethral Stenosis in a Boy (Voiding Disorder/Posterior Urethral Valves)
     Distal Urethral Stenosis in a Girl (Differential Diagnosis Voiding Disorder)
     Intraluminal Urethral Mass (Voiding Disorder/Posterior Urethral Valves)
     IVU (Posterior Urethral Valves)
     Labial Fusion (Differential Diagnosis as before)
     Moistening Perineal Orifice (Differential Diagnosis Voiding Disorder)
     Neurogenic Bladder (Differential Diagnosis as before)
     Posterior Urethral Valves
     Posterior Urethral Valves/Electroresection (Video)
     Small in Height (Posterior Urethral Valves)
     Therapy (Posterior Urethral Valves)
     Ultrasound (Posterior Urethral Valves)
     Upper Urinary Tract (Posterior Urethral Valves)
     Urethral Eventration 1 (Voiding Disorder/Posterior Urethral Valves)
     Urethral Eventration 2 (Voiding Disorder/Posterior Urethral Valves)
     Utriculus Dilatation 1 (Voiding Disorder/Posterior Urethral Valves)
     Utriculus Dilatation 2 (Voiding Disorder/Posterior Urethral Valves)
     VCUG 1 (Posterior Urethral Valves)
     VCUG 2 (Posterior Urethral Valves)

Conspicuous or abnormal external genitals - Pediatric Surgery
     Abnormal Female External Genitals (Video)
     Additional Examination for the Determination of the Sex
     Anterior Type 1 (Hypospadias)
     Anterior Type 2 (Hypospadias)
     Apparent Mikropenis (DD as before)
     Apron-like Labia Minora (DD Abnormal Female External Genitals)
     Bifid Scrotum (Hypospadias)
     Divided Clitoris (DD Abnormal Female External Genitals)
     Dorsal Penis Cleft (Differential Diagnosis = DD Abnormal External Genitals/Hypospadias)
     Empty Scrotum (DD Ambiguous External Genitals)
     Female Inguinal Hernia (DD Ambiguity External versus Internal Genitals)
     Genitography, Endoscopy (DD Ambiguous External Genitals)
     Hypospadias 1 (DD Ambiguous External Genitals/Hypospadias)
     Hypospadias 2 (DD Ambiguous External Genitals)
     Hypospadie
     Intermediate Type (Hypospadias)
     Isolated Penis Curvature (Hypospadias)
     Labioscrotal Folds (Hypospadias)
     Labioscrotal Folds with Micropenis (DD Ambiguous External Genitals)
     Large Clitoris 1 (DD Ambiguous External Genitals)
     Large Clitoris 2 (DD Ambiguous External Genitals)
     Large Clitoris versus Mikropenis (DD Ambiguous External Genitals)
     Local Findings 1 (Hypospadias)
     Local Findings 2 (Hypospadias)
     Penis Curvature 1 (Hypospadias)
     Penis Curvature 2 (Hypospadias)
     Penis Torsion (DD Abnormal External Genitals)
     Penis Transposition (Hypospadias)
     Pigmented Scrotum (DD Ambiguous External Genitals)
     Posterior Type 2 (Hypospadias)
     Posterior Type 3 (Hypospadias)
     Posterior Type 4 (Hypospadias)
     Severe Form/Posterior Type 1 (Hypospadias)
     Small Penis (DD Abormal External Genitals)
     Therapy 1 (Hypospadias)
     Therapy 2 (Hypospadias)
     Types (Hypospadias)
     Vaginal Duplication (DD as before)

Differential Diagnosis

     Abdominal Wall Contusion, Hematoma of the Abdominal Wall vs. Rupture of the Spleen
     Abortive Meningocele vs. Hemangioma
     Accessory Mammilla vs. Pigment Nevi, Neurofibromatosis
     Achalasia of the Esophagus vs. Congenital Stenosis of the Esophagus
     Acuta Perforated Appendicitis, Perityphlitic Abscess vs. Meckel´s Diverticulitis, Diffuse Peritonitis
     Acute Intussusception vs. Melena
     Acute Intussusception, Early Diagnosis vs. Acute Intussusception, Late Diagnosis
     Adrenogenital Syndrome in a Girl vs. Micropenis
     Adrenogenitale Syndrome, in the Girl vs. Hypospadias, Severe Type
     Anal Fissur, Primary Type vs. Anal Fissure, Secondary Type
     Anal Polyp vs. Hemorrhoid Node
     Aneurysmatic Bone Cyst vs. Neurinoma
     Atypical Myelomeningocele vs. Typical Myelomeningocele
     Atypical Cerebral Concussion vs. Epidural Hematoma
     Atypical Cerebral Concussion vs. Shunt Dysfunction
     Atypical Cerebral Concussion vs. Shunt Dysfunction
     Balanoposthitis, Phimosis vs. Iuxtavesical Ureteral Stenosis
     Ballooning of the Prepuce in Phimosis vs. Megalopenis in Urethral Diverticulum
     Basal Skull Fracture vs. Soft Tissue Contusion
     Basal Skull Fracture vs. Chest Trauma, Upper Venous Congestion
     Bathrocephaly vs. Posterior Fossa Cyst
     Bilateral Pneumothorax vs. Right-sided Lung Cyst
     Bilateraler Nephroblastoma vs. Hepatoblastoma
     Bilateraler Nephroblastoma vs. Hepatoblastoma
     Bladder Exstrophy vs. Partial Exstrophy of the Bladder
     Bochdalek´s Diaphragmatic Hernia, Incarceration vs. Middle Lobe Pneumonia
     Breast Enlargement, Testicular Tumor vs. Gynecomastia
     Bronchogenic Cyst vs. Giant Cell Tumor
     Bullous Cystitis vs. Rhabdomyosarcoma, Bladder
     Cerebral Concussion vs. Battered Child Syndrome
     Cerebral Concussion vs. Cerebral Contusion
     Cerebral Concussion vs. Cerebral Contusion
     Cerebral Concussion vs. Cerebral Contusion
     Cerebral Concussion vs. Shunt Dysfunction
     Cerebral Concussion, Basal Skull Fracture vs. Shunt Dysfunction
     Choledochal Cyst vs. Hemangioendothelioma of the Liver
     Choledochal Cyst vs. Hemangioendothelioma of the Liver
     Cleft Alveolus vs. Alveolus Notch
     Cleft Lip Palate vs. Facial Cleft
     Cleft Lip vs. Facial Cleft
     Cleft Lip vs. Facial Cleft
     Cleft Lip vs. Facial Cleft
     Cleft Lip vs. Facial Cleft
     Cleft Lip vs. Facial Cleft
     Cleft Lip vs. Lip Notch
     Cleft Palate vs. Uvula bifida
     Combination Type vs. Funnel Chest
     Complete Ureteral Duplication vs. Incomplete Ureteral Duplication
     Congenital Hydrocephalus vs. Microcephalia
     Congenital Hydrocephalus vs. Microencephaly
     Congenital Diaphragmatic Hernia vs. Cystic Adenomatoid Malformation of the Lung
     Congenital Diaphragmatic Hernia vs. Pierre Robin Syndrome
     Congenital Hydrocephalus vs. Arachnoid Cyst
     Congenital Hydrocephalus vs. Sagittal Synostosis
     Congenital Hydrocephalus vs. Sagittal Synostosis
     Congenital Hydrocephalus vs. Subdural Hematoma
     Congenital Hydrocephalus, Infratentorial Arachnoid Cyst vs. Dandy Walker Variant
     Congenital Lung Cyst vs. Bullous Pneumopathy
     Congenital Muscular Torticollis vs. Klippel-Feil Syndrome
     Congenital Muscular Torticollis vs. Plexus Paralysis
     Congenital Muscular Torticollis vs. Postural Torticollis
     Congenital Muscular Torticollis vs. Second Cleft Sinus
     Congenital Obstructive Goitre vs. Cystic Lymphangioma
     Coronal Synostosis vs. Complex Skull Deformity
     Coronal Synostosis vs. Crossed Plagiocephaly
     Crohn´s disease vs. Ulcerative Colitis
     Cystic Lymphangioma vs. Phlebectasia
     Cystic Adenomatoid Malformation vs. Congenital Diaphragmatic Hernia
     Cystics Lymphangioma vs. Lymphadenitis
     Cystine Stone, Bladder vs. Calciumoxalate Stone, Ureter
     Dermoid Cyst vs. Hemangioma
     Dermoid Cyst vs. Meningoencephalocele
     Epidermoid Cyst vs. Eosinophilic Granuloma
     Epidermoid Cyst vs. Mucocele
     Epidermoid Cyst vs. Neuroblastoma
     Epidermoid Cyst vs. Pacchionian Granulations
     Epidermoid Cyst vs. Battered Child
     Epidermoid Cyst vs. Cephalhematoma
     Epidermoid cyst vs. Encephalocele
     Epidermoid Cyst vs. Enzephalocele
     Epidermoid Cyst vs. Eosinophilic Granuloma
     Epidermoid Cyst vs. Eosinophilic Granuloma
     Epidermoid Cyst vs. Hemangioma
     Epidermoid Cyst vs. Lipoma
     Epidermoid Cyst vs. Meningocele
     Epidermoid Cyst vs. Meningoencephalocele
     Epidermoid Cyst vs. Neuroblastoma
     Epidermoid Cyst vs. Nodular Goiter
     Epidermoid Cyst vs. Sinus Pericranii
     Epispadias in the Girl vs. Epispadias in the Boy
     Fibroadenoma vs. Acquired Breast Asymmetry
     Fistulas (Lower Lip) vs. Fistulas (Upper Lip)
     Foreign Body, Freely Movable in the Bladder vs. Foreign Body, Attached to the Wall
     Fractionated Bladder Voiding vs. Instable Bladder
     Funnel Chest vs. Pigeon Chest
     Ganglioneuroma vs. Dermoid Cyst
     Gastric Foreign Body vs. Esophageal Foreign Body
     Gastroesopgageal Reflux, Hiatus Hernia vs. Congenital Diaphragmatic Hernia (Morgagni)
     Gastroesopgageal Reflux, Hiatus Hernia vs. Congenital Diaphragmatic Hernia (Morgagni)
     Gastroesophageal Reflux without Hiatus Hernia vs. Gastroesophageal Reflux with Hiatus Hernia
     Gastroesophageal Reflux without Hiatus Hernia vs. Gastroesophageal Reflux with Hiatus Hernia
     Gastroesophageal Reflux vs. Hypertrophic Pyloric Stenosis
     Gastroesophageal Reflux vs. Hypertrophic Pyloric Stenosis
     Gastroesophageal Reflux, Nissen´s Fundoplication vs. Gastroesophageal Reflux, Semifundoplication
     Gastroesophageal Reflux, Nissen´s Fundoplication vs. Gastroesophageal Reflux, Semifundoplication
     Gastroesophageal Reflux, Slight Esophagitis vs. Gastroesophageal Reflux, Severe Esophagitis
     Gastroesophageal Reflux, Slight Esophagitis vs. Gastroesophageal Reflux, Severe Esophagitis
     Gastroschisis vs. Bladder Exstrophy
     Gastroschisis vs. Omphalocele
     Gastroschisis vs. Omphalocele
     Gastroschisis vs. Testicular Prolapse
     Gastroschisis vs. Vesicointestinale Fissure (Cloacal Exstrophy)
     Gaucher´s Disease vs. Hepatoblastoma
     Gaucher´s Disease vs. Hepatoblastoma
     Gynecomastia vs. Lipomas
     Gynecomastia vs. Pigment Nevus
     Hamartomous Polyp of the Rectum vs. Adenomatous Polyp of the Colon
     Hemangioma vs. Nasal Glioma
     Hemangioma, Bladder vs. Hemorrhagic Granular Cystitis
     Hematuria, Trauma to the Kidney vs. Postoperative Hematuria
     Hirschsprung´s Disease vs. Hypertrophic Pyloric Stenosis
     Hirschsprung´s Disease vs. Normal Anorectum
     Hirschsprung´s Disease vs. Biliary Atresia
     Hirschsprung´s Disease vs. Coeliac Disease
     Hirschsprung´s Disease vs. Hypertrophic Pyloric Stenosis
     Hirschsprung´s Disease vs. Idiopathic Megacolon
     Hirschsprung´s Disease vs. Ileus of Small Intestine
     Hirschsprung´s Disease vs. Normal Rectum
     Hirschsprung´s Disease vs. Small Left Colon Syndrome
     Horner´s Syndrome vs. Pupillary Asymmetry
     Hydrocephalus vs. Constitutional Macrocrania
     Hymenal Atresia vs. Urethral Prolapse
     Hymenal Bridge vs. Duplication of the Vagina
     Hypertrophic Pyloric Stenosis vs. Gastroesophageal Reflux
     Hypertrophic Pyloric Stenosis vs. Gastroesophageal Reflux
     Hypertrophic Pyloric Stenosis vs. Incarcerated Inguinal Hernia
     Hypertrophic Pyloric Stenosis vs. Acute Gastroenteritis
     Hypertrophic Pyloric Stenosis vs. Adrenogenital Syndrome
     Hypertrophic Pyloric Stenosis vs. Incidental Finding
     Idiopathic Intussusception vs. Symptomatic Intussusception
     Incarcerated Inguinal Hernia vs. Testicular Hydrocele
     Infant Skull Fracture vs. Os Parietale Divisum
     Infected Thyroglossal Duct Cyst vs. Lymphadenitis with Abscess
     Inguinal Hernia vs. Cryptorchidism
     Inguinal Hernia vs. Hydrocele of the Cord
     Inguinal Hernia vs. Lymphadenopathy
     Inguinal Hernia vs. Nuck´s Cyst (Female Hydrocele of the Cord)
     Inguinoscrotal Hernia vs. Testicular Hydrocele
     Intussusception Small Intestine, Henoch-Schönlein Purpura vs. Intussusception Small Intestine, Gastrointestinal Duplication
     Intussusception vs. Obstructive Ileus, Renal Trauma, Renal Calculus
     Isolated Cleft Lip Palate vs. Syndromic Cleft Lip Palate
     Isolated Cleft Lip Palate vs. Syndromic Cleft Lip Palate
     Labial Synechia vs. Urogenital Sinus in Adrenogenital Syndrome
     Lambdoid Synostosis vs. Torticollis
     Lateral Neck Fistula (Branchial Anomaly) vs. Lymphadinitis with Abscess
     Lateral Neck Fistula (Branchial Anomaly) vs. Sternomastoid Tumor
     Left Congenital Diaphragmatic Hernia without Hernial Sac vs. Left Congenital Diaphragmatic Hernia with Hernial Sac
     Left-sided Reflux , Horseshoe-like Orifice vs. Left-sided Reflux , Golfhole-like Orifice
     Left-sided Congenital Diaphragmatic Hernia vs. Bullous Pneumopathy
     Lobar Emphysema vs. Lung Cyst
     Lung Metastasis , Nephroblastomatosis vs. Neurogenic Mediastinal Tumor (PNET)
     Lymphadenitis vs. Parotis Hemangioma
     Marfan´s Syndrome vs. Funnel Chest
     Mastitis vs. Breast Enlargement
     Meconium Ileus vs. Ileus of the Newborn, Hirschsprung´s Disease
     Mediastinal Tumor (Teratoma) vs. Pigeon Chest
     Mesenterial Cysts, Obstructive Ileus vs. Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma, Chronic Obstructive Ileus
     Mesenterial Cysts, Obstructive Ileus vs. Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma, Chronic Obstructive Ileus
     Microencephalia vs. Anencephaly
     Microscopical Hematuria and Urinary Tract Infection, Renal Trauma vs. Microscopical Hematuria and Urinary Tract Infection, Partial Hydronephrosis
     Minimal Spinal Dysraphism vs. Dermal Sinus of the Coccyx
     Minimal Spinal Dysraphism vs. Coccygeal Teratoma
     Minimal Spinal Dysraphism vs. Meningocele
     Minimal Spinal Dysraphism vs. Mongolian Spots
     Minimal Spinal Dysraphism vs. Myelomeningocele
     Minimal Spinal Dysraphism vs. Pigment Nevus
     Minimal Spinal Dysraphism vs. Skin Tag (Tail)
     Mixed Gonadal Dysgenesia vs. Cryptorchidism
     Myelomeningocele vs. Meningocele
     Nasal Fistula vs. Subluxation Nasal Septum
     Native Hydrocephalus vs. Achondroplasia
     Nephroblastoma vs. Malignant Teratoma
     Nephroblastoma vs. Malignant Teratoma
     Nephroblastoma vs. Neuroblastoma, Adrenal Gland
     Nephroblastoma vs. Neuroblastoma, Adrenal Gland
     Nephroblastoma vs. Neuroblastoma, Metastasis Liver
     Nephroblastoma vs. Neuroblastoma, Metastasis Liver
     Nephroblastoma vs. Obstructive Ileus , Hirschsprung´s Disease
     Nephroblastoma vs. Obstructive Ileus , Hirschsprung´s Disease
     Nephroblastoma, Upper Pole vs. Renal Cyst
     Nephroblastoma, Upper Pole vs. Renal Cyst
     Neurofibroma vs. Ping-pong Fracture
     Nodous Goiter vs. Goiter in Graves´ Disease
     Omphalocele vs. Thoracic Ectopia Cordis
     Omphalocele vs. Umbilical Hernia
     Ovarian Prolapse vs. Prolapse of Gonads
     Ovarian Torsion, Ovarian Cyst vs. Ovarian Torsion, Prenatal
     Pansynostosis (Closure of Multiple Sutures) vs. Microcephalia
     Paraostial Bladder Diverticulum vs. Ectopic Ureteral Orifice, Posterior Urethra
     Paraspinal Neuroblastoma vs. Adrenal Gland Neuroblastoma
     Paraspinal Neuroblastoma vs. Adrenal Gland Neuroblastoma
     Penis Curvature in Hypospadias vs. Isolated Penis Curvature
     Penoscrotal Transposition in Hypospadias vs. XX-Male Syndrome
     Penoscrotale Hypospadias vs. Burried Penis (Micropenis)
     Peptic Esophageal Stenosis vs. Vascular Ring Anomaly
     Perianal Fistula, complete vs. Perianal Fistula, incomplete
     Pierre Robin Syndrome vs. Trisomy 18
     Pleuroperitoneal Diaphragmatic Hernia (Bochdalek´s Hernia) vs. Sternocostal Diaphragmatic Hernia (Foramen Morgagni Hernia)
     Poland´s Syndrome vs. Funnel Chest
     Polycystic Ovary, Recurrent Torsions vs. Midpain , Ovulation
     Premature Enlargement of the Breast vs. Hemangioma
     Pseudocyst of the Spleen vs. Splenomegaly, Sickle Cell Disease
     Pseudocyst of the Spleen vs. Splenomegaly, Sickle Cell Disease
     Pseudogynecomastia vs. Gynecomastia
     Purpura Henoch-Schönlein, distinct signs vs. Purpura Henoch-Schönlein, minimal signs
     Pyeloureteral Junction Obstruction vs. Intermittent Pyeloureteral Junction Obstruction
     Rectal Polyp vs. Anal Prolapse
     Rectoanal Malformation with Rectovestibular Fistula vs. Testicular Feminization
     Recurrent Appendicitis, Acute Episode vs. Foreign Body Perforation, Appendix
     Rhabdomyosarcoma, Bladder vs. Urachal Cyst
     Rhabdomyosarcoma, Bladder vs. Ureteral Polyp
     Right Coronal Synsostosis vs. Left Midface Hyperplasia
     Right-sided Congenital Diaphragmatic Hernia vs. Right-sided Diaphragmatic Eventration
     Sagittal Synostosis vs. Bathrocephaly
     Sagittal Synostosis vs. Cephalhematoma, Sagittal Synostosis
     Sagittal Synostosis vs. Cloverleaf Skull
     Sagittal Synostosis vs. Prematurity
     Scrotoperineal Hypospadias vs. Adrenogenital Syndrome in the Girl
     Second Branchial Cyst vs. Chronic Lymphadenitis
     Second Branchial Cyst vs. Mixed Pleomorphic Adenoma
     Second Branchial Sinus vs. Neck Tag
     Secondary Pigeon Breast, Mediastinal Tumor vs. Pigeon Breast-like Thorax Deformity
     Setting Sun Sign, pathognomonic vs. Setting Sun Sign, developmental
     Shunted Hydrocephalus vs. Dandy Walker Cyst
     Sickle Cell Disease, Spleen Infarction vs. Intermittent Ureteropelvic Junction Obstruction
     Small Intestine Perforation, Blunt Abdominal Injury vs. Obstructive Ileus due to Adhesions
     Stenosis of the External Urethral Orifice in the Boy vs. Urethral Diverticulum
     Sternomastoid Tumor vs. Cystic Lymphangioma
     Sudoriparous Abscess vs. Axillary Lymphadenitis with Abscess
     Testicular Necrosis, Incarcerated Inguinal Hernia vs. Testicular Necrosis, Torsion in Cryptorchidism
     Thyroglossal Duct Cyst vs. Median Cleft Neck
     Thyroglossal Duct Cyst vs. Thyroid Carcinoma
     Thyroglossal Duct Cyst, Base of the Tongue vs. Teratoma, Base of the Tongue
     Tongue Teratoma vs. Tongue Lymphangioma
     Torsion of the Penis vs. Curvature of the Penis
     Trigonocephaly vs. Birth Molding
     Umbilical Granuloma vs. Patent Omphalomesenteric (Vitelline) Duct
     Umbilical Hernia vs. Cutis Navel
     Umbilical Hernia vs. Epidermoid Cyst
     Umbilical Hernia vs. Omphalocele
     Umbilical Hernia vs. Partial amnion navel
     Ureteral Polyp, Ureteropelvic Junction Obstruction vs. Intermittent Ureteropelvic Junction Obstruction
     Ureteropelvic Junction Obstruction vs. Multicystic Kidney (Aplastic Cystic Kidney)
     Urethral Valves vs. Detrusor Sphincter Dyssynergy
     Urethral Valves vs. Stenosis of the Urethral Orifice in the Girl
     Urethral Valves vs. Urethral Diverticulum
     Urethral Valves vs. Urethral Polyp
     Urethral Valves vs. Urethral Polyp
     Urethral Valves vs. External Sphincter Muscle of the Bladder
     Vascular Malformation vs. Growing Skull Fracture
     Vesicoureteral Reflux vs. Obstructive Megaureter, Iuxtavesical Ureteral Stenosis
     Vesicoureteral Reflux, Anomaly of Ureteral Orifice vs. Reflux , Ectopic Ureteral Orifice

MC-Quiz

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Learning paths and certificate for advanced training

    Please find the paths and exams here.