Complete Ureteral Duplication vs. Incomplete Ureteral Duplication
Left picture: In this case a complete ureteral duplication of the right side is present, in which both ureters enter the bladder separately; notice the separate course in the picture of the right side with the catheter in the ureter of the cranial part of the kidney, and the demonstration of the ureter of the caudal renal part in the VCUG in the left-sided picture with a grade 3-4 reflux. It is a complete ureteral duplication (double kidney with duplicity of the ureter). Right picture: Here, a right-sided ureteral duplication is present, too, in which the ureters join together in the middle of the course. It is an incomplete ureteral duplication (double kidney with bifidity of the ureter).
Left picture: In this 3.5-year-old girl a VCUG has been performed due to recurrent urinary tract infections, which is visible on the left side of the picture, and a retrograde pyelography during cystoscopy, which can be seen on the right side of the picture. On both sides the upper urinary tracts are filled; the right kidney has a diminished number of calices. On retrograde pyelography it is possible to introduce a ureter catheter, and to demonstrate the upper part of the kidney with contrast; therefore, the number of calices is now normal if added up. Right picture: In this schoolchild with recurrent urinary tract infections and vague abdominal pain two ureters are visible on the right side which are dilated in the middle part.