Congenital Hydrocephalus vs. Microencephaly
Left picture: The diagosis is a shunted hydrocephalus 4 months after surgery; following shunting of congenital hydrocephalus, a residual dilatation of the posterior horns is often observed. Right picture: In this case there is a localized dilatation of the lateral ventricles in microencephaly (localized hydrocephalus ex vacuo). The absent ballooning of the ventricles in both case reports speaks against an increased intracranial pressure.
In both cases the lateral ventricles are dilated mainly or exclusively in the posterior horn. Left picture: Here, the tip of the ventricular catheter is visible. Right picture: Here, no parts of a shunt system are visible.